Glenn Dynner

BA, Brandeis University. MA, McGill University. PhD, Brandeis University. Scholar of East European Jewry, with a focus on the social history of Hasidism and the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment). Author of Men of Silk: The Hasidic Conquest of Polish Jewish Society, which received a Koret Publication Award and was a National Jewish Book Awards finalist. Received textual training in several Israeli yeshivas and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Additional interests include Polish-Jewish relations, Jewish economic history, and popular religion. Recipient of the Fulbright Award. Member (2010-11), Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University. SLC, 2004–

Undergraduate Courses 2017-2018

Religion

The Holocaust

Open , Seminar—Spring

The Holocaust raises fundamental questions about the nature of our civilization. How could a policy of genocide be carried out by one of the most advanced and sophisticated countries of Europe? In this course, we will examine how these appalling events took place, beginning with anti-Semitic ideology and policy. At the same time, we will confront a surprisingly neglected perspective of the victims, whose perspective—how they chose to respond to the impending catastrophe (through art, diary-writing, mysticism, violence, hiding, etc.)—has not been integrated into an overall history of the Holocaust. Finally, we will attempt to come to grips with the crucial but neglected phenomenon of bystanders—non-Jews who stood by while their neighbors were methodically annihilated, rescued Jews, or became perpetrators themselves. We shall inevitably be compelled to make moral judgments. But these will be of value if they are informed and based on a fuller understanding of the perspectives of the various actors in this dark chapter of European history.

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Jewish Mysticism From Antiquity to the Present

Sophomore and above , Seminar—Spring

This course examines a vibrant countertrend within Judaism known as mysticism. We begin with the biblical and ancient “Chariot” mysticism, proceed to ascetic medieval German pietism, and dwell at length on the erotically-charged “Kabbalah” that emerged in medieval Spain and Southern France—observing its unique conceptions of God, evil, demonology, sin, death, sexuality, and magic. We then follow the emergence of circles of mystics in 16th-century Safed (Land of Israel) that eventually sparked a mass messianic movement around the figure of Shabbetai Tzvi. In the second semester, we delve into the most popular and enduring Jewish mystical movement, Hasidism. Founded on the teachings of the Ba’al Shem Tov (The Besht) in 18th-century Eastern Europe, Hasidism was forged into a mass movement by charismatic miracle-workers called “tzaddikim” and spread by means of oral and written tales. We follow the emergence of Hasidic dynasties, gauge Hasidic responses to modern phenomena like Zionism and the Holocaust, and follow the movement’s continued flourishing today in tight-knit communities from Brooklyn to Jerusalem. Finally, we will examine popular contemporary neo-Kabbalah. Throughout, we strive to appreciate different manifestations of Jewish mysticism within their changing historical contexts.

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Previous Courses

Jews and Violence: From the Bible to the Present

Sophomore and above , Seminar—Spring
The critical theorist Daniel Boyarin once proudly described Jewishness as a “culture and cultural memory within which ‘real men’ were sissies” who abhorred the violent masculinity of the dominant culture and valued, instead, scholarship and piety. Indeed, many works of Jewish literature, from the Talmud to Fiddler on the Roof, suggest an aversion to physical violence. Yet counterexamples abound, most prominently in biblical and modern Israel. A similarly stark contrast appears within antisemitic art and literature, where Jews are depicted both as bloodthirsty killers of Christ and children and, alternatively, as cowardly military shirkers who seek power through money and other nonphysical means. This course analyzes depictions of Jewish nonviolence and violence spanning the Bible, Christian iconography, Crusades, blood libels, pogroms, The Holocaust, and the Arab-Israeli conflict. In addition to examples of traditional quietism and victimization, we encounter Jewish revolutionaries, gangsters, Zionists, and messianic settlers. Throughout, we will consider the theories of Arendt, Benjamin, Ghandi, Fanon, Malcolm X, King Jr., Kahane, and more.
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Modern Jewish Literature

Open , Seminar—Spring
As Jews were emancipated in Europe and freed from the “ghetto,” some began to grapple with the challenges of modernity through literary genres like poetry and fiction. Writers such as Franz Kafka, Isaac Babel, Primo Levi, S. Y. Agnon, and Sholem Aleichem (whose short stories formed the basis of the play Fiddler on the Roof) achieved universal acclaim. But the path of the modern Jewish writer was rarely smooth. It usually entailed alienation, rebellion against the Jewish tradition, bouts of nostalgia, longing and regret, and attempts to cope with increasingly virulent forms of anti-Semitism culminating in The Holocaust. In new centers in America and Israel, the Jews’ improved and inverted power status yielded a different, but no less acute, sense of ambivalence and alienation, as witnessed in works by authors such as Philip Roth, Cynthia Ozick, Amos Oz, and David Grossman. Despite the tension and anguish that runs through modern Jewish literature, we will discover works of beauty and poignancy that yield profound insights into the modern experience. Throughout this course, we consider works by Jewish men and women whose outsider, “pariah” status gave them a unique perspective on the world.
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The Jews in Europe

Open , Seminar—Fall

How did a Jewish civilization develop throughout the triumph of Christianity in the West? This course conceives of Judaism as a counterpoint to the dominant cultures of Europe. We begin with the arrival of Jews to the Roman Empire and proceed to the insular “Ashkenazic” Jewish communities of medieval France and Germany. Next, we trace the appearance of “Sephardic” Jews in Spain, including worldly poets and philosophers, other-worldly Kabbalists, and secret Judaizing “conversos” throughout the period of Inquisition. We then follow the exiles of Spain as they begin openly practicing Judaism again in the Land of Israel and other places; trace the growth of the popular movement around the false messiah Shabbetai Tzvi; and witness the blossoming of Jewish life in Eastern Europe, with its extensive self-rule, new economic niches, and world-renowned yeshivas. In the last part of the course, we examine the dissolution of the “ghetto” during the process of emancipation, the rise of more virulent forms of anti-Semitism, modern political responses like Zionism and Socialism, and the destruction of European Jewry during the Holocaust. Throughout, we will attempt to balance negative flashpoints like the Crusades, blood libels, Inquisition, pogroms, and genocide with more affirmative features of Jewish life such as economic vitality, self-government, and spiritual developments like Hasidism, Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah), and Reform and Orthodox Judaism.

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First-Year Studies: Jewish Spirituality and Culture

Open , FYS

Judaism since the biblical age has defied easy categorization, oscillating between religion and ethnicity. This course provides an introduction to Judaism with an eye toward gender, sexuality, and responses to Western values of heroism and chivalry. We begin with the Bible and ancient Israel and witness the emergence of “rabbis” and their formative texts (Talmud, Midrash, Medieval Bible commentaries). We then encounter movements that challenged Judaism, including Christianity, medieval philosophy, poetry, Kabbalah, false Messianism, and Hasidism. Next, we follow attempts to create a modern-Jewish synthesis through Enlightenment (Haskalah), Zionism, Jewish Socialism, modern literature, modern philosophy, and Jewish Feminism. We then explore attempts to transform Judaism into something more akin to strictly religion (Reform, Conservative) and attempts to resist modernity through the invention of Orthodoxy. Finally, we explore Jewish responses to the Holocaust and proceed to chart the course of Jewish religion and culture in America and Israel, examining assimilation and the roots of the current Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Throughout, we will gauge the interplay between Jewish conceptions of law, chosenness, exile, sin, redemption, sexuality, death, etc. and grapple with challenges like anti-Semitism and secularization.

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Pariah Lives: Modern Jewish Fiction and Autobiography

Open , Seminar—Year

In the late-18th century, Jewish authors began to emerge from the ghetto and grapple openly with the challenges of modernity through genres like fiction and autobiography. Some, like Solomon Maimon, Franz Kafka, Isaac Babel, and Sholem Aleichem (whose short stories formed the basis of the play Fiddler on the Roof), achieved universal acclaim. But the path of the modern Jewish writer was rarely smooth. It usually entailed alienation and rebellion against the Jewish tradition; bouts of nostalgia, longing, and regret; and rejection by non-Jewish societies that were generating increasingly virulent forms of anti-Semitism, culminating in the Holocaust. Despite the ambivalence, tension, and anguish that runs through their writings, we will discover works of great beauty and poignancy that yield profound insights into the modern experience. Throughout the course, we interweave modern works of fiction and autobiographies by Jewish men and women whose outsider, “pariah,” status gave them a unique perspective on the world.

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